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Body Temperature

Definition: Body temperature is measured to obtain baseline data and to detect the presence of infection, hypothermia or other changers in the patient’s physical condition.

Normal temperature range 36 to 37.2 degrees centrigrade

Abnormal temperature range:

  • Subnormal: 35-36 degrees centrigate
  • Pyrexia: above 37.2 degree centrigate
  • Hyper pyrexia: over 38.5 degree centrigate


Definition: Respiration is the taking in of oxygen and its utilization by the tissues and the giving off of carbon dioxide. The act consists of inspiration, expiration and pause. Normal respiration is rhytmically quiet, regular and comfortable. It is controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata.

Respiratory rate varies with age:

  • Neonates: 30-40 per minute
  • Twelve months old: 25-30 per minute
  • Two to five years: 20-24 per minute
  • Adults: 12-20 per minute

Blood Pressure

Definition: Blood pressure may be defined as the force exerted by blood against the walls of the vessels in which it ic contained. differences in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force that keeps the blood moving throughout the body. Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of millimeter of mercury (mm Hg)
Average Pressures:


Systolic   70-90 mm Hg     Diastolic 50 mm Hg


Systolic 80-100 mm Hg    Diastolic 60 mm Hg


Systolic 90-110 mm Hg   Diastolic 60-70 mm Hg

Young adult:

Systolic 110-125 mm Hg  Diastolic 60-70 mm Hg

Age advances:

Systolic 130-150 mm Hg  Diastolic 80-90 mm Hg
Fundamental of Nursing guidebook
Deparment of Nursing, UNIMAS


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